Michel Foucault: Intelektual Spesifik Versus Intelektual Universal
Abstract: The paper shows Foucaults own stand on specific intellectual as contrasted to the universal or traditional intellectual claimed by modernist thinkers, which is mainly based on essence, foundation, transcendence, universals, etc, or what one calls grand narratives. Specific intellectual is not based on the universal reason which is claimed to be the source of all human capacities in liberating him or herself. In his last lectures and seminars Foucault talked about parrhesia (truth-telling), that is how the individual is aware of him/her self to be the subject of truth and of ethics. The true intellectual is then called the parrhesiast, who is able not only to tell the truth to other people, but moreover he or she should be able to tell the truth to him/her self. This means that he has a special relation to him/her self, in the sense that he/she is mature in his/her mode of being, and that means he/she is able not only to tell the truth through words but also through his own conduct. There is always a correspondence between words and deeds.
Keywords: Power, discourse, specific intellectual, truth-telling, subject, ethics modality, and truth-games.