Polemik dan Inti Perspektivisme Nietzsche

  • Yulius Tandyanto Alumnus Program Magister Sekolah Tinggi Filsafat Driyarkara, Jakarta


Abstract: Nietzsche asserts that perspectivism is a basic human condition before the reality. From this idea at least two main approaches emerge. On the one hand, analytic-naturalists Nietzsche tends to pose perspectivism only as a theory of knowledge. On the other hand, the New Nietzsche prioritizes perspectivism only as a psycho-physiological genealogical method that has nothing to do with the reality as it is. In this article, I propose that both approaches are inadequate and tend to obscure the essence of Nietzsches perspectivism, namely as the art of dissimulation which is always related to its human being type. In this case, I refer to the aphorisms of The Gay Science 354 to show that perspectivism is a superficial, conscious, and has its function for the survival of human life. Nevertheless, Nietzsche does not necessarily remove perspectivism. In contrast, Nietzsche underlines that perspective has always included the tension between consciousness and its human instinct in the face of reality as such. There lies the power and alertness of the philosopher of the future (master morality) to resist all the dogmatic knowledge about reality. Nietzsche points out that master morality basically being respectful in the presence of the chaotic and enigmatic reality. In that context master moralitys truth is an artistic creativity that shows a self-awareness before the reality it is.


Keywords: Friedrich Nietzsche, perspectivism, analytic-naturalistic approach, New Nietzsche, art of dissimulation, consciousness, instinct, need to communicate, master morality, reality as it is, truth.